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And from the workshop of Maarten van den Heuvel a gilt leather plaque survives with the portrait of the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf (1594–1632) in a an Auricular style cartouche, dated 1632.
Biography Dr Eloy Koldeweij (1959) studied History of Art at Leiden University, the Netherlands, where he specialized in historic interiors.
Luckily, some of the products from the workshops of Jacob Dircxz de Swart, Hans le Maire and Maarten den Heuvel still survive today.
Quite remarkably, the Auricular style is well presented in the patterns of these gilt leathers.
Dutch ebonized frames, or French Louis XIII/Louis XIV gilded frames with a more restrained outline, have been preferred.
However, the frame of the double portrait of , signed and dated by the Dutch painter Nicolaes Roosendael (1636-1686), is a notable marker both for the development of the Auricular style and for the history of framing.
Although the precise circumstances of the creation of this carved and gilded frame, more than two metres high, do not seem to be documented, one can safely assume that the bishop commissioned both the portrait and its frame.
The appearance of this embossed Dutch gilt leather was very different from the traditional flat version, the production of which was dominated by leather-makers from Spain and Italy, both of which countries had a long tradition of gilt leatherwork created under strong regulation by the guilds.Hans le Maire, Amsterdam gilt leather-maker (1576-1640), gilt leather panel, c.1635-40, detail with Auricular mascaron.On 4 August 1628 Jacob Dircxz de Swart (before 1594-1641), gilt leather-maker in The Hague, was granted a patent by the States General of the Dutch Republic for fourteen years on a new production method by which it was possible to mass-produce gilt leather with relief patterns.Biography Charlotte Chastel-Rousseau was educated at the Ecole du Louvre and at Université Paris-Sorbonne, and holds a Ph D in art history on (2005, Université Paris I- Panthéon-Sorbonne).She has published work on 18th century British, French and Portuguese monumental sculpture, and has researched the circulation of artistic models and ideas in a European cultural space from the Renaissance to the 18 century.
, 1669, Musée du Louvre Among the vast collection of 17th century Dutch paintings in the Musée du Louvre, only one is surrounded by a frame in the Auricular style.